Genome Diversity Center

at the Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa

(Since August 2000)
Head: Edward N. Trifonov

What else the sequences code for?

The translation triplet code is far from being the only code in the genomic sequences.
More than dozen of other codes are known in various degrees of detailization.
They frequently overlap so that the same letter in a given sequence
simultaniously serves for several codes.

Relevant references:

Trifonov, E. N., Codes of biosequences.
In: The Codes of Life. The Rules of Macroevolution. Barbieri, M. (ed.).
Springer. New York, pp 3-14, 2008

Trifonov, E. N., Sequence codes. In: "Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology",
T. E. Creighton, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1999, p. 2324-2326

Trifonov, E. N., Elucidating sequence codes: three codes for evolution.
Annals NY Acad. Sci. 870, 330-338 (1999).
(Title of the volume: Molecular Strategies in Biological Evolution, Ed. L. Caporale).

Trifonov, E. N., Denisov, D. A., Makhoul, C., Interacting sequence patterns.
Math. Modelling and Sci. Computing 9, 24-29 (1998)

Trifonov, E. N., 3-, 10.5-, 200- and 400-base periodicities in genome sequences.
Physica A 249, 511-516 (1998)

Trifonov, E. N., Genetic sequences as product of compression by inclusive superposition of many codes.
Molecular Biology 31, 759-767 (1997)

Trifonov, E. N., Interfering contexts of regulatory sequence elements.
CABIOS 12, 423-429 (1996)

Lagunez-Otero, J., Trifonov, E. N., mRNA periodical infrastructure complementary to the proof-reading site in the ribosome.
J. Biomolec. Str. and Dynamics 10, 455-464 (1992)

Lagunez-Otero, J., Trifonov, E. N., Translation framing pattern in mRNA - compensation effects.
In "Modelling and Computer Methods in Molecular Biology and Genetics",
(Eds. V. A. Ratner and N. A. Kolchanov), Nova Science Publishers, New York, 1992, pp. 451-460.

Trifonov, E. N., Recognition of correct reading frame by the ribosome.
Biochimie 74, 357-362 (1992)

Beckmann, J. S., Trifonov, E. N., Splice junctions follow a 205-base ladder.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 2380-2383 (1991)

Trifonov, E. N., The multiple codes of nucleotide sequences.
Bull. Math. Biol. 51, 417-432 (1989)

Trifonov, E. N., Searching for codes in the sequences.
In: "Biomolecular Data: A Resource in Transition", (Ed. R. R. Colwell), Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 199-210

Trifonov, E. N., Codes of nucleotide sequences. Math. Biosci. 90, 507-517 (1988).
Also reprinted in: "Nonlinearity in Biology and Medicine", (Eds. A. S. Perelson, B. Goldstein, M. Dembo and J. A. Jacques),
Elsevier Science Publ. Co., Inc., 1988, pp. 507-517

Trifonov, E. N., Translation framing code and frame-monitoring mechanism
as suggested by the analysis of mRNA and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences.
J. Molec. Biol. 194, 643-652 (1987)

Trifonov, E. N., Structure of DNA in chromatin.
In: "International Cell Biology 1980-1981" (Ed. H. Schweiger), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981, pp. 128-138