BIBLIOGRAPHIA GERSONIDEANA

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF WRITINGS BY AND ABOUT

R. LEVI BEN GERSHOM

Menachem Kellner

1992

This bibliography was originally published in Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides, A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992) and appears on this website thanks to the kind permission of Gad Freudenthal and Brill.

In most cases I have given a summary description of the item. No summary is given in cases where the contents of the entry were made clear by the title, or if I had not seen the item myself. Where appropriate, and to save the need of cross references, and to make each several different headings; in such cases, the descriptions relate to the subject of heading. I have, by and large, not included encyclopedia articles and the like. Wherever possible I have translated as opposed to transliterating titles of works by or about Gersonides in Hebrew; all of his works were written in that language. Items by the same author in any given section are listed chronologically by date of publication. The indexes of names of modern editors, translators, and students of Gersonides allow one to trace works by a given scholar classed under different headings.

I would like to make this bibliography an on-going project and invite colleagues to send me comments, corrections, and additions, and especially offprints of their future publications on Gersonides. I will keep the bibliography updated. My address is: kellner@research.haifa.ac.il

I would like to thank Bernard R. Goldstein for his kind and extensive help and advice. Gad Freudenthal has given unstintingly of his time and effort. Their assistance is reflected on every page of this bibliography.

Abbreviations

JQR = Jewish Quarterly Review

HUCA = Hebrew Union College Annual

MGWJ = Monatsschrift fuer Geschichte und Wissenshaft des Judentums

PAAJR = Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research

REJ = Revue des études juives

A word on tranliteration: for technical reasons I have not used diacritical marks. Thus, “h” stands for either “heh” or “het” and “z” for either “zayin” or “tzadi”. In preparing this article for posting on the internet some French accents may have been lost.

I have organized the material under the following headings:

Part One: Works by Gersonides

I. Editions

A.     Bible Exegesis

1.   Pentateuch

2.   Prophets

3.   Hagiographa

4.   Selections

B.     Philosophy

C.     Logic, Astronomy, Mathematics, Science

D.     Other

II. Tranlations

A.     Medieval

B.     Modern

1.   Bible Exegesis

2.   Wars of the Lord

a. English

b. German

c. French

3.   Supercommentaries on Averroes

4.   Other

Part Two: Works About Gersonides

III. Life

IV. Biblography

V. Bible Exegesis

VI. Philosophy

VII. Science

A.     Astronomy and Astrology

B.     Mathematics

C.     Logic

VIII. Influence

IX. Varia

PART ONE: Works by Gersonides

I.     Editions (Hebrew)

A.     Biblical Exegesis

NOTE: This list of printed editions of Gersonides’ commentaries on the Bible is drawn from the following sources: Chaim Friedberg, Bet Eked Sepharim:Bibliographical Lexicon (Jerusalem:Bar Yuda, 1951); Charles Touati, La pensee philosophique et theologique de Gersonide (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1973): 63-70; Bernhard Blumenkarnz, Auteurs juifs en France médiévale:: leur oeuvre imprimée (Paris:Edouard Privat, 1975):65-69; Menachem Kasher, Sarei ha-Elef (Jerusalem: Torah Shelemah, 1979); the rare book room of the University of Haifa library; and the catalogue of the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem.

i.     Pentateuch

Commentary on the Pentateuch [Perush al ha-Torah] (Mantua, 1480; Pesaro, 1514; Venice, 1547 [Reprints: New York, 1958 (first half of the commentary only), Israel (2vols.; n.p.,n.d.)] ; in Qehillot Mosheh [rabbinic Bible edited by Moses Frankfurter, Amsterdam, 1724-27]).

ii.     Prophets

Commentary on Earlier Prophets [Perush al Nevi’im Rishonim] (Leiria, 1494; Venice, 1524-26 [the second edition of Daniel Bomberg’s Miqra’ot Gedolot], 1546-48, 1567-68, 1617-19; Basle, 1617-19 [Johannes Buxtorf the Elder’s edtion of the Bible and commentaries]; Amsterdam, 1724-27 [Qehillot Mosheh] and in all subsequent editions of the Rabbinic Bible, Miqra’ot Gedolot).

iii.     Hagiographa

1. Commentary on Proverbs [Perush al Mishlei] (Leiria, 1492; Venice, 1524-26, 1546-48, 1567-68, 1617-19; Basle, 1617-19; Amsterdam, 1724-27; Karlsruhe, 1834; and in subsequent editions of the Miqra’ot Gedolot).

2. Commentary on Job [Perush al Iyyov] (Ferrara, 1477; Naples, 1487; Venice, 1524, 1547, 1567-68, 1617-19; 1617-19; Amsterdam, 1724-27; and in subsequent editions of the Miqra’ot Gedolot).

A summarized version of this commentary in rhyme (!) was composed by Zerah Barfat and published in Venice in 1543/4 and again in Cracow in 1573/4.  This twelve-page curiostiy is called Perush Iyyov be-Qizzur Muflag, beHalazah uve-Shir, Kefi Perusho shel ha-Ralbag (A Greatly Abbreviated Commentary on Job in Rhyme and Meter According to the Commentary of Gersonides).

3. Commentaries on Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth Ecclesiastes, Esther and Daniel in Qehillot Mosheh (Rabbinic Bible edited by Moses Frankfurter, Amsterdam, 1724-27).

4. Commentaries on the Five Scrolls [Perush ‘al Hamesh Megillot] (Riva di Trento, 1560; Koenigsberg, 1860 [Reprint: Israel, n.d.).

Despite the title, this work does not contain a commentary on Lamentations; there is no evidence that Gersonides ever wrote one.

5. Commentary on Song of Songs, Introduction, edited by Menachem Kellner in “ Gersonides’ Introduction to His Commentary on Song of Songs,” Da’at 23 (1989): 15-32 (Hebrew).

6. Commentary on Daniel (Italy [Rome?], c. 1480; Venice, 1517-18 ; Amsterdam, 1524-27; Tel Aviv: Pardes, 1970 [Ozar ha-Perushim, Vol. II]).

7. Commentaries on Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles [Be’urei Ralbag al Ezra, Nehemiah, ve-Divrei ha Yamim] (Cracow, 1888; reprint: Israel, 1971).

iv.     Selections

1. Freyman, Eli, “A Passage from Gersonides’ Commentary on the Torah,” in B. Brenner, O. Kafih, and Z. Shimshoni (eds.), Me-Alei Asor (Yeshivat Birkat Mosheh Tenth Anniversary Volume) (Ma’aleh Adumim: Ma’aliyot, 1988): 162-89 (Hebrew).

Selections from Gersonides’ commentary on Exodus critically edited with source notes and brief halakhic commentary.

2. Book of Views and Morals [Sefer ha-De’ot ve-ha-Middot] edited by Yehiel Ben Shlomoh Mahriech (Warsaw, 1865). Reprint by R. Meir Keiman (Jerusalem, 1966; bound together with Divrei Emet by R Alexander Mosheh Lapidot).

Selections on morals drawn from all of Gersonides’ Bible commentaries as a source of Musar, organized into fifty-one topics.

3. To’aliyot (Scriptural “Lessons”) (Riva di Trento, 1559/60; Offenbach, 1797; Jozefow, 1829-38; Warsaw, 1913; Tel Aviv: Nezah, 1950).

Gersonides closed his commentaries on most biblical passages with lists of the “advatages” or “Lessons” (to’aliyot) to be derived from the passage under discussion. These were collected together and published separately in this work.

B.     Philosophy

1. Wars of the Lord [Milhamot Adonai] (Riva di Trento, 1959).

2. Wars of the Lord (Leipzig: Carl B. Lorck, 1866; reprint: Berlin: Louis Lamm, 1923).

3. Wars of the Lord,Treatise III, in Norbert M. Samuelson, “The problem of God’s Knowledge in Gersonides: A Translation of and Commentary to Book III of the Milhamot Adonai,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1970.

4. Commentary on Averroes’ Epitome of the Introduction to the Organon (the Isagoge of Porphyry), edited in Shalom Rosenberg, “Gersonides’ Commentary on the Ha-Mavo (part I),” Da’at 22 (1989): 85-98 (Hebrew).

5. Commentary on Averroes’ Epitome of the De anima, chapters 9-12 in Jesse Stephen Mashbaum, “Chapters 9-12 of Gersonides’ Super-commentary on Averroes’ Epitome of the De anima:The internal Senses,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1981.

6. Commentary on Averroes’ Epitome of Parva naturalia, II.3: Annotated Critical Edition, edited by Alexander Altmann,  PAAJR Jubilee Volume, Part 1 (Jerusalem:American Academy for Jewish Research, 1980):1-31.

Gersonides on dreams, divination, and prophecy.

C.     Logic, Astonomy, Mathematics, Science

1. The Astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344): A Critical Edition of Chapters 1-20- with Translation and Commentary,  edited and translted by Bernard R. Goldstein (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.)

(Wars of the Lord,Treatise V, Part i, chapters 1-20). The beginning of  the introdution to the shorter Hebrew version of this text was edited by Moritz Steinschneider in ‘Devarim Atikim,” Mi-Mizrah u-mi- Ma’arav 4 (1899): 40-43.

2. Book of the Correct Syloogism [Sefer ha-Heqqesh ha-Yashar], partial  edition and translation in Charles Manekin, “The Logic of Gersonides,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1984. The complete Hebrew text is due to be published by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

3. Composition on the Science of Geometry [Hibbur Hokhmat ha-Tishboret] edited by Joseph Carlebach in Moritz Stern (ed.), Festschrift zum vier-zigjaehrigen Amstjubilaeum des Herrn Rabbiners Dr. Salomon Carlebach in Luebeck (Berlin: Verlag “Hausfreund,” 1910): 174-78.

Mainly an attempt to prove Euclid’s fifth (parallel ) postulate. For a Russian translation and study, cf. Polski, 1958; brief sketches in Pont, 1986 and Rosenfeld, 1988, all in section VIIA below. French translation and study in Lévy, 1992 (section VIIB below).

4. Glosses on the Book of Euclid [Hagahot le-Sefer Euqlidus] edited by Joseph Carlebach in moritz Stern (ed.), Festschrift Zum Vierzigjaehrigen Amstjubilaeum des Herrn Rabbiners Dr. Salomon Carlebach in Luebeck (Berlin: Verlag “Hausfreund,” 1910) 151-74.

See Lévy, 1992 (section VIIB below).

5. Prognostication for the Conjunction of 1345 edited by Bernard R. Goldstein and David Pingree, in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 80, part 6 (1990). 60 pp.

Editions of the Hebrew and Latin versions, with translations of Gersonides’ only known astrological treatise.

6. Work of the Reckoner [Sefer Ma’aseh Hoshev] edited by Gerson Lange in Sefer Maasei Choscheb - Die Praxis des Rechners, Ein hebraeisch arithmetisches Werk des Levi ben Gershom aus dem Jahre 1321 (Frankfurt am Main: Louis Golde, 1909).

D.   Other

1. Book of ther Bottle the Prophet [Sefer ha-Baqbuq ha-Navi] published with Haggadah le-Lel Shikkurim by Zvi Hirsch Sommerhausen (Vienna:M. E. Lew, 1850; reprint: Jerusalem: Mazhef, 1967 [?]).

Purim parody. For the ascription to Gersonides cf. Israel Davidson in Section IV below.

2. Scroll of Secrets [Megilat Setarim], edited by Daniel Adelkind (Venice, 1552) and Yonah Willhimer (Vienna, 1871).

Purim parody.

3. Liturgical poems (pizmonim) and confession (viddui) edited and translated into French by Charles Touati in, “Quatre compositions liturgiques de Gersonide,” REJ 117 (1958): 97-105.

4. Poem on the Jacob Staff (radius astronomicus, called “megalleh amuqut” [“revealer of profundities”] by Gersonides) in Hirsch Edelman, Dibrey Hephez: Acceptable Words or Extracts from Various Unprinted Works of Eminent Hebrew Authors (London: Abraham Pierpont Shaw and Co., 1853), p.7. This, along with a second astronomical poem, was Also published by J. Carlebach in Moritz Stern (ed.), Festschrift zum vierzigjaehrigen Amstjubilaeum des Herrn Rabiners Dr. Salomon Carlebach in Luebeck (Berlin: “Hausfreund”, 1910), pp. 152-53 and translated into German by Carlebach in Levi ben Gerson als Mathematiker (berlin: Lamm, 1910), pp. 27 and 34 (reprint:Miriam Gillis-Carlebach (ed.), Joseph Carlebach: Ausgewaehlte Schriften, Vol. Two [Heldesheim: Georg Olms, 1982]). The two poems were re-edited by Bernard R. Goldstein in The Astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1985), p. 264 and translated into English on pp. 71-72.

5. Responsum in She’elot u-Teshuvot (Responsa) by Isaac ben Immanuel de Lattes (Vienna, 1860): 87-93.

NOTE: For works not preserved, or not yet published, in Hebrew, cf. Section II below.

II.      Translations

A.     Medieval

1. Commentary on Job (Chapters 1-5) translated into Latin by Ludovico Henrico Aquinate A Commentarius R. Levi Filii Gersonis in librum Iobi (Paris, 1625). Partial translation (chapters 607) by Christianus Altenbergerus in Commentarius rabbinicus in cap. VI et VII Hiobi (Leipzig, 1705).

2.Commentary on Proverbs translated into Latin by Antonius Giggeius in Commentaria trium rabbinorum (Milan, 1610).

3. De numeris harmonicis edited by Joseph Carlebach in Lewi ben Gerson als Mathematiker (Berlin: J. Lamm, 1910), 125-44. Reprint: Miriam Gillis-Carlebach (ed.), Joseph Carlebach: Ausgewaehlte Schriften, Vol. Two (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1982): 837-56. (The Hebrew original of this work is lost).

4. Wars of the Lord, Treatise V, part i, prologue and chapters 4-11 (chapters on trigonometry and the Jacob Staff) translated into Latin by Petrus de Alexandria in 1342 (and dedicated to Pope Clement VI) under the title, De Sinibus, chordis et arcubus, Item Instrumento Revelatore Secretorum. Parts of the Latin text were edited and published by Maximilian Curtze in the following: “Die Abhandlung des Levi ben Gerson ueber Trigonometrie und den Jacobstab, “ Bibliotheca Mathematica (n.s.) 12 (1898): 97-112; “Die Dunkelkammer,” Himmel und Erde 13 (1901): 225-36; and “Urkunden zur Geschichte der Trigonometrie im christlichen Mittelalter,” Bibliotheca Mathematica (3rd series) 1 (1900): 321-416; Curtze provides German translations.

5. Supercommentaries on Averroes’ Commentaries on Prophyry’s Isagoge and Aristotle’s  Categories and De interpretatione translated into Latin by Jacob Mntino (as Levi Ghersonidis in Porphyrium, in Praedicamenta Arist., in Lib. de Interpretatione, et in Averoim Annotationes) and published in Aristotelis Opera Cum Averrois Cordubensis Commentaria (Venice, 1562-74; reprinted: Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, 1962), 14 volumes, Vol. 1, pt. i, pp. 1-106.

6. Supercommentary on Averroes’ Epitome of Aristotle’s De animalibus translated into Latin by Jacob Mantino and published in Paraphrasis Averrois de Partibus et Generatione animalium (Rome, 1521).

B.     Modern
i      Biblical Exegesis

1.Commentary on Job translated Abraham Lassen as The Commentary of Levi ben Gerson (Gersonides on the Book of Job (New York: Bloch, 1946).

2. Commentary on Job, Introduction translated by Leon Stitskin in “Ralbag’s Introduction to the Book of Job,” Tradition 6 (1963): 81-85. Reprint in Norman Lamm and Walter Wurzburger )eds.), A Treasury of Tradition (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1967): 370-74 and in L. Stitskin (ed.), Studies in Honor of Dr. Samuel Belkin (New York: Ktav, 1974): 147-51.

3. Commentary on Song of Songs, Introduction, translated by Menachem Kellner as “‘Introduction to the Commentary on Song of Songs Composed by the Sage Levi ben Gershom’ - An Annotated Translation,” in J. Neusner, et al. (eds.), From Ancient to Modern Judaism:Intellect in Quest of Understanding. Essays in Honor of Marvin Fox, Vol. Two (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989): 187-205.

ii.   Wars of the Lord

a.      English

1. Treatise I, translated by Seymour Feldman in The Wars of the Lord, Vol. 1 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1984). Treatises II-IV, translated by Seymour Feldman in The Wars of the Lord, Vol. 2 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1987).

2. Treatise II, translated by David W. Silverman in “The Problem of Prophecy in Gersonides,” Ph. D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1974.

3. Treatise III, translated by Norbert M. Samuelson in Gersonides on God’s Knowledge (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1977).

4. Treatise IV, translated by J. David Bleich in Providence in the Philosophy of Gersonides (New York, Yeshiva University Press, 1973).

5. Treatise V, Part 1, chapter 4, sections 1-4 translated from the Latin (De sinibus, chordis, et arcubus ) by Pamela Espenshade in “ A Text on Trigonometry by Levi ben Gerson,” The Mathematics Teacher 60 (1967): 628-37.

6. Treatise V, part i, chapters 1-20, translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in The Astronomy of Levi Ben Gerson (1288-1344): A Critical Edition of Chapters 1-20 with Translation and Commentary (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985).  

7. Treatise V, Part i, tables, translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in The Astronomical Tabled of Levi Ben Gerson (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1974) (Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 45).

8. Treatise V, part i, chapter 29 translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in “Preliminary Remarks on Levi Ben Gerson’s Cosmology,” David Novak and Norbert Samuelson (eds.), Creation and the End of Days: Judaism and Scientific Cosmology (Lanham, MD.: University Press of America, 1986): 261-76.

9. Treatise V, part i, chapters 46, 109, 113, 117 and 122 translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in “A New Set of Fourteenth Century Planetary Obeservations,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 132 (1988): 371-99.

10. Treatise V, part i, Chapter 61, translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in “Levi Ben Gerson’s Analysis of Precession,” Journal for the History of Astonomy 6 (1975): 31-41. Reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

11. Treatise V, part i, chapter 71, translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in “Levi Ben Gerson’s Preliminary Lunar Model,” Centaurus 18 (1974): 275-88. Reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

12. Treatise V, part i, chapters 80 and 100 translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in “Medieval Observations of Solar and Lunar Eclipses,” Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences 29 (1979): 101-56. Reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

13. Treatise V, part 1, Chapters 130 and 131, translated by Bernard R. Goldstein in “Levi Ben Gerson’s Theory of Planetary Distances,” Centaurus 29 (1986): 272-313.

14. Treatise VI, part ii, chapters 1-8, translated by Jacob Staub in The Creation of the World According to Gersonides (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982) (Brown Judaic Studies 24).

b.    German

1. Treatises I_IV, translated by Benzion Kellermann in Die Kaempfe Gottes von Lewi ben Gerson [Two volumes] (Berlin: Mayer und MÜller, 1914 and 1918).

On this translation, see Isaac Husik, “Studies in Gersonides,” JQR (n.s.) 7 (1916-1917): 553-94 and 8 (1917-1918): 113-56, 231-68. Reprinted in Husik, Philosophical Essays, edited by L. Strauss and M.C. Nahm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952): 186-254.

2. Treatise V, Part I, portions of the prologue and chapters 4-11 (De sinibus, chordis, et arcubus) translated (from the Latin translation of the Hebrew original) by Maxiilian Curtze in the following: “Die Dunkelkammer,” Himmel und Erde 13 (1901): 225-36; and “Urkunden zur Geschichte der Trigonometrie im christlichen Mittelalter,” Bibliotheca Mathematica (3rd series) 1 (1900): 321-416.

c.    French

1. Treatise I, extracts, tranlated by Colette Sirat in Ruedi Imbach and Maryse-Heline Meliard (eds.) Philosophes médiévaux. Anthologie de texts philosophiques (XIIIe et XIVe siècles), chapters 11 (“Gersonide”) (Paris: Union générale d’éditions [10/18], 1986): 318-34. (Preceded by a brief “Introduction,” pp.309-17).

2. Treatises III-IV, translated by Charles Touati in Les Guerres du Seigneur, III-IV (Paris: Mouton, 1968).

iii.      Supercommentaries on Averroes

1. Supercommentary on Averroes’ Epitome of the De anima, Chapters 9-12, translated by Jesse Stephen Mashbaum in “Chapters 9-12 of Gersonides’ Supercommentary on Averroes’ Epitome of the De anima: The Internal Senses,” Ph. D. Dissertation , Berndeis University, 1981.

2. Supercommentary on Averroes’ Middle Commentary on the Categories, translated by Alan Sinyor in “Gersonides on the Categories,” Ph. D. Dissertation, Cambridge University, 1989.

iv.   Other

1. Liturgical poems (pizmonim) and confession (viddui) edited and translated into French by Charles Touati in “Quatre compositions liturgiques de Gersonide,” REJ 117 (1958): 97-105.

2. The Book of the Correct Syloogism [Ha-Heqqesh ha-Yashar], translated by Charles Manekin in The Logic of Gersonides: A translation of the Sefer ha-Heqqesh ha-Yashar (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992) (New Synthese Historical Library no. 40).

3.Commentary on Euclid in Joseph Polski, “Fragment of the Commentaries [in Hebrew] on Euclid Concerning Parallel Lines,” Istoriko-matematitcheskie Issledovaniya [=  Historico-Mathematical Researches] 11 (1958): 763-82.

Russian translation of Gersonides on Euclid’s parallel postulate.

4. Commentary on Euclid in Tony Lévy, “Gersonide commentateur d’Eluclide: Traduction annotée de ses gloses sur les Éléments,” in Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides—A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 83-147.

5. Work of the Reckoner [Ma`aseh Hoshev] translated (into German) by Gerson Lange in Sefer Ma`awwei Choscheb. Die Praxis des Rechners. Ein hebraeisch-arithmetisches Werk des Levi Ben Gerschom aus dem Jahre 1321 (Frankfurt am Main: Louis Golde, 1909).

6. Work of the Reckoner [Ma`aseh Hoshev], portions translated into German by Joseph Carlebach in Lewi Ben Gerson als Mathematiker (Berlin: J. Lamm, 1910): 151-234. Reprint: Miriam Gillis-Carlebach (ed.), Joseph Carlebach: Ausgewaehlte Schriften, Vol. Two (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1982): 859-946.

 PART TWO: Works About Gersonides

 III. Life

  1. Alègre, Léon. “Levi Ben Gerson,” in his Notices biographiques du Gard (Canton de Bagnols) (Bagnols: Baile, 1880), Vol. 2, pp. 29-45 (also printed separately).

  2. Gasparri, Françoise. La principauté d’Orange au mouen ˆage (Paris, 1985): 105-7.

  Notarial records dealing with Gersonides.

  3. Goldstein, Bernard R. “The Town of Ezob/Aurayca,” REJ 126 (1967): 269-71.

  de The Author notes that in the Latin translation of Gersonides’ Astronomy (= Wars of the Lord V. i) the town where he made most of his astronomical observations is called “Aurayca.” This unusual spelling for the Latin name of Orange is, however, to be found in a fourteenth-century archival document noted in a supplement to the Annuaire administratif Vaucluse (Avignon, 1886). See further Isidore loeb, “La ville d’Hysope,” REJ 1 (1880): 72-82.

  4. Iancu-Agou, Danièle. “Les communautés juives méridionales contemporaines de Gersonide: Orange,Avignon,” in G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 9-31.

  5. Levy, Israel. “Un recueil de consultations inédites de rabbins de la France méridionale,” REJ 43 (1901): 237-50 and 44 (1902): 73-86.

  References to Gersonides by contemporaries and near contemporaries.

   6. Neubauer, Adolphe. Medieval Jewish Chronicles (Oxford, 1895; reprint, 1967), Vol. I: 97-99, 106, 110, and Vol II: 240.

  References to Gersonides by contemporaries and near contemporaries.

  7. Shatzmiller, Yosef. “Suggestions and Addenda to Gallia Judaica,” Kiryat Sefer 45 (1970): 607-10 (Hebrew).

  8. Shatzmiller, Yosef. “Gersonides and the Jewish Community of Orange in his Day,” B. Oded, et al. (eds.), Studies in the History of the Jewish People and the Land of Israel 2 (Haifa, 1972): 111-26 (Hebrew).

  9. Shatzmiller, Yosef. “Some Further Information about Gersonides and the Orange Jewish Community in his Day,” B. Oded et al. (eds.), Studies in the History of the Jewish People and the Land of Israel 3 (Haifa, 1974): 139-43 (Hebrew).

  10. Shatzmiller, Yosef. “Correction and Addition,” B. Oded, et al. (eds.), Studies in the History of the Jewish People and the Land of Israel 5 (1980):167 (Hebrew).

  11. Shatzmiller, Yosef. “Gersonide et la société juive de son temps,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 33-43.

  12. Touati, Charles. La pensée philosophique et théologique de Gersonide (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1973).

   Pp. 33-48 on Gersonides’ life.

  13. Weil-Guény, Anne-Marie. “Levi Ben Gershom et sa bibliothèque privée. Un manuscrit autographe inédit,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 45-59.

  14. Weil-Guény, Anne-Marie. “Gersonide en son temps:Un tableau chronologique,” in Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides -- A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden:Brill, 1992): 355-65.

  15. Wickersheimer, Ernest. (ed.) Recueil des plus célèbres astrologues et quelques hommes doctes faict par Symon de Phares (Paris: Librairie Champion, 1929): 215-16.

  Short biographical note on Gersonides.

  IV. Bibliography

  1. Blumenkranz, Bernhard. Auteurs juifs en France médiévale: leur œuvre imprimée (Paris: Edouard Privat, 1975):65-69.

   Gersonides’ printed works.

  2. Chazelas, Geneviève and Gilbert Dahan, “Bibliographie gersonidienne,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 369-74.

   3. Davidson, Israel. Parody in Jewish Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1907; 2nd. ed., 1966): 19, 23-28, 115-34.

   On Gersonides’ two Purim parodies, Sefer ha-Baqbuq ha-Navi and Megillat Setarim. Touati (1973), p. 59f. mentions Megillat Setarim but is silent about Ha-Baqbuq ha-Navi.

  4. Dienstag, Israel J. “The Relationship of Gersonides to the Philosophy of Maimonides -- An Annotated Bibliography,” Da`at 23 (1989): 5-13 (Hebrew).

   Partially annotated list of sixty-eight studies in which Gersonides and Maimonides are both mentioned.

  5. Joel, Manuel. “Notizen zu Lewi ben Gerson,” MGWJ 9 (1860): 223-26.

   Gersonides’ relation to Gershom ben Solomon, author of Sha`ar ha-Shamayim; the identity of the town of Ezov; a reference to the Orsini family in Gersonides; an implicit criticism of flagellation; Gersonides’ rejection of the heliocentric hypothesis. Moritz Steinschneider critically commented on this article in Hebraeishe Bibliographie 3 [no.16] (July-August, 1860), p. 71 (item 999).

  6. Kellner, Menachem. “R. Levi ben Gerson: A Bibliographical Essay,” Studies in Bibliography and Booklore 12 (1979): 13-23.

   Discursive and critically annotated discussion of works by and about Gersonides; superseded by the present bibliography.

  7. Manekin, Bezalel (Charles). “The Book Sha`arei Zedek and its attribution to Gersonides,” Alei Sefer 14 (1987):55-58 (Hebrew).

   The author demonstrated that it is very unlikely that Gersonides is the author of Sha`arei Zedek, a commentary on the thirteen hermeneutical principles of halakhic exegesis. Following Manekin, editions of Sha`arei Zedek and works about it are not included in this bibliography.

  8. Munk, Salomon. Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, 3rd ed. (Paris, 1859; reprint: Paris: J. Vrin, 1955): 497-501.

   Munk was the first modern scholar to draw attention to Gersonides’ astronomical contributions.

  9. Renan, Ernest and Adolphe Neubauer. Les écrivains juifs français du XIVe siècle (Histoire littéraire de la France,Vol. 27) (Paris, 1877): 586-644.

  10. Sarton, George. Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. III, pt. 1 (Washington: Carnegie Institute, 1947): 594-607.

   Survey (now largely outdated) of Gersonides’ scientific work.

  11. Schwab, M. “Versions hébraïques d’Aristote,” Marcus Brann (ed.), Gedenkbuch zur Erinnerung an David Kaufmann (Breslau, 1900): 120-27.

   OnGersonides’ supercommentaries on Averroes’ commentaries on Aristotle.

  12. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Levi ben Gerson,” Hebraeische Bibliographie 9 (1869): 162-4. Reprinted in Steinschneider’s Gesammelte Schriften,Vol. I (Berlin, 1925): 265-68.

  13. Steinshneider, Moritz. “Gersoni,” in Allgemeine Enzyklopaedie der Wissenschaften und Kuenste (erste Sektion), edited by Ersch and Gruber 1818-89, Vol. 62, pp. 62-63 (Reprint: Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Veragsanstalt, 1969).

  14. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Levi ben Gerson,” in Allgemeine Enzyklopaedie der Wissenschaften und Kuenste (zweite Sektion), edited by Ersch and Gruber (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1889), Vo. 43, pp. 295-300 (Reprint: Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1969). The original essay was reprinted, with additions from “Zu Levi ben Gerson” (see below) in Steinschneider’s Gesammelte Schriften, Vol. I (Berlin, 1925): 233-65.

  15. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Zu Levi ben Gerson,” Magazin fuer die Wissenschaft des Judenthums 16 (1889): 137-55.

   Additions to Steinschneider’s “Gersoni’’ in the Allgemeine Enzyklopaedie......(see above).

  16. Stein schneider, Moritz. Die hebraeischen Uebersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetcher (Berlin, 1893; reprint: Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956): 65-73 and index, s.v., “Levi ben Gerson” (p. 1060).

  17. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Levi ben Gerson,” MGWJ 37 (1893): 127-28. Reprinted in Steinschneider’s Gesammelte Schriften, Vol. I (Berlin, 1925): 268-69.

  18. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Levi ben Gerson,” Zeitschrift fuer hebraeische Bibliographie 7 (1903), p. 28. Reprinted in Steinschneider’s Gesammelte Schriften,Vol. I (Berlin, 1925): 269 - 70.

  19. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Juedische Aerzte,” Zeitschrift fuer hebraeische Bibliographie 18 (1904): 153.

  20. Touati, Charles. La Pensée philosophique et théologique de Gersonide (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1973).

  Comprehensive study of Gersonides’ life, writings (pp. 49-82), philosophy, and influence.

  21. Weil, Gérard E. “Sur une bibliothèque systématiquement pillée par les Nazis. Le catalogue des manuscrits et incunables retrouvé de la Bibliothek des juedisch-theologischen Seminars in Breslau,” In Gérard Nahon and Charles Touati (eds.), Hommage à Georges Vajda (Louvain: Peeters, 1980): 579-604.

  On p. 590 Weil identifies an autograph manuscript of Gersonides listing the books he owned. The ma. was in Breslau before World War II. Before his death, Weil began preparing the publication of this list; this project has recently been completed; see next entry.

  22.Weil, Gérard E. La bibliothèque de Gersonide d’après son catalogue autographe, édité par F. Chartrain, avec la collaboration d’A.-M. Weil-Guény et J. Shatzmiller (Louvain: Peeters, 1992).

  23. Wickersheimer, Ernest. Dictionnaire biographique des médecins en France au moyen âge (1936): 525. See also D. Jacquart, Supplément à E. Wickersheimer, Dictionnaire biographique des médecins en France au moyen âge (Geneva: Droz, 1979): 198-99.

V. Biblical Exegesis

  1. Eisen, Robert J. “The Exodus of the Jews from Egypt in Gersonides’ Commentary on the Torah: A Study in Medieval Philosophical Exegesis,” Ph. D. Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1990.

  Examination of the relationship between Wars and Bible commentaries. Conclusion: no substantial difference, but much valuable infomation about Gersonides’ philosophy can be derived from the commentaries; as an example of this, the notion of “inherited providence” is examined at length. The author also draws attention to “the ever-present influence of the rabbinic” in Gersonides’ exegesis.

  2. Feldman, Seymour. “The Binding of Isaac: A Test-Case of Divine Foreknowledge,” Tamar Rudavksy (ed.), Divine Omniscience and Omnipotence in Medieval Philosophy (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1985): 105-33.

   Critical survey of medieval Jewish philosophic exegesis of Genesis 22; pp. 112-16 are devoted to Gersonides.

  3. Feldman, Seymour. “‘Sun Stand Still’--A Philosophical Astronomical Midrash,” Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress of Jewish Studies--Division C (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1986): 77-84.

  Gersonides (pp. 77-78), Abravanel, and Nicole Oresme on Joshua 10.

  4. Feldman, Seymour, “Appendix: Gersonides and Biblical Exegesis,” in Wars of the Lord, Treatises II-IV, translated by Seymour Feldman, Vol. 2 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1987): 211-47.

  5. Feldman, Seymour. “The Wisdom of Solomon: A Gersonidean Interpretation,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 61-80.

  6. Fletcher, Harris, “Milton and Ben Gerson,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 29 (1930): 41-52.

  Milton’s use of Gersonides’ Bible commentaries.

  7. Fletcher, Harris, Milton’s Rabbinical Readings (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1930), pp. 65-66, 93-97, 128-39, and Passim.

   See previous entry.

  8. Freyman, Eli. “A Passage from Gersonides’ Commentary on the Torah,” B. Brenner, O. Kafih, and Z. Shimshoni (eds.), Me-Alei Asor (Yeshivat Birkat Mosheh Tenth Anniversary Volume) (Ma’aleh Adumim: Ma’aliyot, 1988): 162-89 (Hebrew).

   Selections from Gersonides’ commentary on Exodus critically edited with source notes and brief halakhic commentary.

   9. Freman, Eli. “Le commentaire de Gersonide sur le Pentateuque,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 117-32.

  10. Funkenstein, Amos. Signonot be-Parshanut ha-Miqra bi-mei haBenayim (Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defense, 1990).

  Pp. 63-64 and 68-72 on Gersonides; implications of Gersonides’ realist view of science on his exegesis raised.

  11. Funkenstein, Amos. “Gersonides’ Biblical Commentary: Science, History and Providence,” in Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides--A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 305-15.

  12. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Galileo’s Account of Miracles in the Bible: A confusion of Sources,” Nuncius 5 (1990): 3-16.

   An account of Gersonides’ discussion of astronomical miracles in the Bible in the context of other ancient and medieval discussions of them.

  13. Harvey, Warren Zev. “ Quelques réflexions sur l’attitude de Gersonide vis-à-vis du Midrash,” G. (Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 109-16.

  14. Heinemann, Yizhak. Reasons for the Commandments in Jewish Literature [Ta`amei ha-Mizvot be-Sifrut Yisrael], Vol. 1 (Jerusalem: World Zionist Organization, 1959); 97-101.

   Rational explanations for the commandments in Gersonides’ Bible commentaries.

   15. Kellner, Menachem. “Gersonides and His Cultured Despisers: Arama and Abravanel,” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 6 (1976): 269-96.

   Gersonides on Joshua 10 and the criticisms of his account by Isaac Arama and Isaac Abravanel.

  16. Kellner, Menachem. “Gersonides’ Commentary on Song of Songs: For Whom was it Written and Why?” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 81-107.

   Gersonides’ commentary on Song of Songs in its historical context: the ban against the study of philosophy issued by the Rashba in 1305.

  17. Leibowitz, Joshua O. “Cardiological Comments on Geriatrics in Ecclesiastes by Levi ben Gerson, 1328,” Dapim Refui’im (Folia Medica) 25 (1966):3-16 (Hebrew).

  To interpret Ecclesiastes 12: 3-6, Gersonides draws on the Talmud and on Galen and construes aging as a functional disorder: the arteries no longer supply the body with blood and vital spirit, whereupon the parts of the body ungdergo a catabolic process. Leibowitz argues that the passage he presents and studies supports the claim made by Steinschneider and Wickersheimer that Gersonides should be classified as a physician.

  18. Maimon, Yehudah L. “From Month to Month,” Sinai 47 (1960): 74-89 (Hebrew).

  Transcription of extensive marginal additions (based on what is said to be an autograph copy of Gersonides’ Commentary on the Torah) to p. 139b of the Venice, 1547 edition of the Commentary on the Torah on pp. 77-82; transcription of Sha`arei Zedek, work wrongly attributed to Gersonides (see Bezalel Manekin, “ The Book Sha`arei Zedeq and its Attribution to Gersonides,” Alei Sefer 14 [1987]: 55-58 [Hebrew]) on pp. 82-89)

  19. Rabinovitch, Nachum L. “Early Antecedents of Error Theory,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 13 (1974): 348-58.

   Argues that Gersonides anticipated Galileo’s error theory; discusses Gersonedes’ commentaries to Proverbs 19:28, 16:13-14, and 27:23.

  20. Salfeld, Epharaim, “Commentary on Song of Songs: Worlds of Symbols,” Bet mikra 3 (1978): 272-88 (Hebrew).

   Summery of Gersonides’ commentary on pp. 279-83.

  22. Touati, Charles, “Les idées philosophiques et théologiques de Gersonide (1288-1344) dans ses commentaires bibliques,” Revue des sciences religieuses 28 (1954): 335-67.

  23. Touati, Charles, “La lumière de l’intellect, création du premier jour: L’exégèse de Genèse 1, 1-3 chez Gersonide,” In Principio: Interprétations des premiers versets de la Genèse (Paris: Etudes augustiniennes, 1973): 37-45.

VI. Philosophy

  1. Adlerblum, Nima H. A Study of Gersonides in his Proper Perspective (New York: Coumbia University Press, 1926).

   An idiosyncratic expostion of some of the main themes in Wars of the Lord. The author proceeds from the assumption that Judaism has an inherent form or essence and that “Jewish scholasticism ... is an anomalous juxtaposition of its [Judaism’s] own essence with a form incompatible with that very essence.”

  2. Adlerblum, Nima H. “ Gersonides in Jewish Thinking of Tomorrow,” Leo Jung (ed.), Israel of Tomorrow (New York: Herald Square Press, 1946): 289-306.

   An attempt to use Gersonides’ synthesis of Judaism and philosophy to create “a reintegrated Judaism” for today.

  3. Burell, David. “ Maimonides, Aquinas, and Gersonides on Providence and Evil,” Religious Studies 20 (1984): 335-51.

  4. Davidson, Herbert A. “Gersonides on the Material and Active Intellects,” In Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides--A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 195-265.

  5. Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit. “The Existential Dimension of Providence in the Thought of Gersonides,” G. Dahan (ed.) Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 159-78.

  6. Epstein, Isidore. “Das Problem des göttlichen Willens in der schöpfung nach Maimonides, Gersonides und Crescas,” MGWJ75 (1931): 335-47.

   Only a few paragraphs deal with Gersonides.

  7. Feldman, Seymour. “Gersonides’ Proofs for the Creation of the Universe,” PAAJR 35 (1967): 113-37. Reprinted in Arthur Hyman (ed.), Essays in Medieval Jewish and Islamic Philosophy (New York: Ktav, 1977):219-43.

  Analysis of some Gersonides’ arguments against the eternity thesis.

   Gersonides’ position is shown to be “tantamount to the claim that Aristotles’s physics entails the creation of the world.”

  8. Feldman, Seymour. “Platonic Themes in Gersonides’ Cosmology,” Salo Wittmayer Baron Jubilee Volume (Jerusalem: American Academy of Jewish Research, 1975): 383-405.

   Analysis of Gersonides’ arguments concerning creation; anticipations of Spinoza in his arguments against creation ex nihilo.

  9. Feldman, Seymour. “Gersonides on the Possibility of Conjunction with the Agent Intellect,” AJSReview 3 (1978): 99-120.

   Gersonides’ critique of immortality as conjunction (in the sense of identification) with the Agent Intellect.

  10. Feldman, Seymour. “The Binding of Isaac: A Test-Case of Divine Foreknowledge,” Tamar Rudavksy (ed.), Divine Omniscience and Omnipotence in Medieval Philosophy (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1985): 105-33.

   Critical survey of medieval Jewish philosophic exegesis of Genesis 22; pp. 112-16 are devoted to Gersonides.

  11. Feldman, Seymour. “‘Sun Stand Still’--A Philosophical Astronomical Midrash,” Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress of Jewish Studies--Division C (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1986): 77-84.

  Gersonides (pp. 77-78), Abravanel, and Nicole Oresme on Joshua 10.

  12. Feldman, Seymour. “The End of the Universe: A Medieval Debate,” David Novak and Norbert Samuelson (eds.), Creation and the End of Days: Judaism and Scientific Cosmology (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986): 215-44.

  Gersonides (pp. 228-230) and Abravanel on the destructibility / indestructibility of the universe; pp. 60-64 are devoted to Gersonides, who is shown to have defended the thesis of the intrinsic indestructibility of the universe.

  14. Feldman, Seymour. “‘ In the Beginning God Created’: A Philosophical Midrash,” David Burell and Bernard McGinn (eds.), God and Creation: An Ecumenical Symposium (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990: 3026.

  Gersonides (pp. 6-10), Albalag, and Abravanel on Genesis 1.

  15. Feldman, Seymour. “Platonic Themes in Gersonides’ Doctrine of the Active Intellect,” Lenn Evan Goodman (ed.), Neoplatonism and Jewish Thought (Albany: SUNY Press, in Press).

  16. Freudenthal, Gad. “ Cosmogonie et physique chez Gersonide,” REJ 145 (1986): 294-314.

  An analysis of Gersonides’ account of the creation of the world. Particular emphasis is placed on the notion of ‘last form,’ a form disposing matter to be informed by the celestial bodies. This notion allows Gersonides to hold that God created the sublunar world by imprinting the last form on a pre-existing “matter devoid of all form,” after which all substances come to be by natural processes.

  17. Freudenthal, Gad. “Epistémologie, astronomie, et astrologie chez Gersonide: À propos de deux ouvrages récents,” REJ 146 (1987): 357-65.

   By way of a review of two books by Bernard R. Goldstein (Theory and Observation in Medieval Astronomy and The Astronomy of Levi ben Gerson), the author raises the issue of the relationship of Gersonides’ astronomy to his epistemology and the question of whether and in what sense Gersonides subscribed to astrology.

  18. Freudenthal, Gad. “Human Felicity and Astronomy: Gersonides’ Revolt Against Ptolemy,” Da`at 22 (1989): 55-72 (Hebrew).

   Argues that Gersonides’ science in general and his astronomy in particular should be viewed within the context of his philosophy. The source of Gersonides’ motivation to engage in science and of his great scientific originality is claimed to be his realist image of knowledge, which in turn is a consequence of his theory of the intellect and of the survival of the personal soul.

  19. Freudenthal, Gad. “Rabbi Lewi ben Gerschom (Gersonides) und Bedingungen wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts im Mittelalter: Astronomie, Physik, erkenntnistheoretischer Realismus, und Heilslehre,” Archiv für Geshichte der Philosophie  74 (1992): 158-79.

   Largely based on the author’s “Human Felicity and Astronomy: Gersonides’ Revolt Against Ptolemy,” and his “Sauver son âme ou sauver les phénomènes...” (next entry).

  20. Freudenthal, Gad. “Sauver son âme ou sauver les phénomènes: Sotériologie, épistémolgie et astronomie chez Gersonide,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides--A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 317-52.

  21. Goldstein, Helen Tunik. “Dator Formarum: Ibn Rushd, Levi b. Gerson, and Moses b. Joshua of Narbonne,” Isma`il Faruqi and A. O. Nasseef (eds.), Essays in Islamic and Comparative Studies (Washington: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1982): 107-21.

  Dispute between Averroes, Gersonides, and Narboni on the Active Intellect as giver of animal forms.

  22. Grull, Benjamin. Die Lehre vom Kosmos bei Maimuni und Gersonides (Lemberg: Goldmann, 1901).

  23. Guttmann, Julius. “Levi ben Gerson’s Theorie des Begriffs,” Festschrift zum 75. jaehrigen Bestehen des Juedisch-Theologischen Seminars, Vol. II (Breslau, 1929): 131-49. Hebrew translation (by Saul Esh): “Torat ha-Musag shel ha-Ralbag,” in Guttmann, Dat u-Mada (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1955): 136-48.

  Analysis of Wars of the Lord I. 8-10: Gersonides on concept formation, nominalism vs. realism, and logic.

  24. Harvey, Steven. “Did Gersonides Believe in the Absolute Generation of Prime Matter?” Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Thought 7 (1988): 307-18 [= Shlomo Pines Jubilee Volume on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday--Part I]. (Hebrew).

  The author claims that in his supercommentary on Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics Gersonides seems to allow for the absolute generation of prime matter, a view rejected in all his other writings.

  25. Harvey, Warren Zev. “The Philosopher and Politics: Gersonides and Crescas,” Leo Landman (ed.), Scholars and Scholarship: The Interaction Between Judaism and Other Cultures (The Bernard Revel Graduate School Conference Volume) (New York: Yeshiva University Press, 1990): 53-65.

  What should a philosopher’s attitude be towards the vita activa? Gersonides’ “life exemplifies his philosophy, which teaches that intellectual contemplation is its own end, and our greatest happiness.” Crescas’ “life exemplifies his philosophy, which teaches that the final end of intellectual contemplation is action, and that our greatest happiness is acting in accordance with the will of God.”

  27. Husik, Isaac. “Studies in Gersonides,” JQR (n.s.) 7 (1916-1917): 553-94 and 8 (1917-1918): 113-56, 231-68. Reprinted in Isaac Husik, Philosophical Essays, edited by Leo Strauss and Milton C. Nahm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952): 186-254.

   Critique of Kellermann’s German translation of Wars of the Lord I-IV; an extremely valuable series of glosses on specific Gerswonidean usages and exposition of many difficult passages in the Wars of the Lord.

  28. Husik, Isaac. “Gersonides,” in his Philosophical Essays, edited by Leo Strauss and Milton C. Nahm (Osford: Oxford University Press, 1952): 172-85.

   An English version of an artical published in German in Encyclopedia Judaica (Berlin: Eschkol, 1928-34), Vol. VIII.

   29. Ivry, Alfred. “Gersonides and Averroes on the Intellect: The Evidence of the Supercommentary on the De anima,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 235-51.

  30. Joel, Manuel. “Lewi ben Gerson (Gersonides) als Religionsphilosoph,” MGWJ 10 (1860) and 11 (1861). Reprinted in Joel, Lewi ben Gerson (Gersonides) als Religionsphilosoph. Ein Beitrag zur Geshcichte der Philosophie und der philosophischen Exegese des Mittelalters  (Breslau: Schletter, 1862) and in Joel, Beitraege zur Geschichte der Philosophie, Vol. I (Breslau, 1876).

  31 Karo, Jakob. Kritische Untersuchungen zu Levi ben Gersons (Ralbag) Widerlegung des Aristotelischen Zeitbegriffes (Leipzig: Albert Teicher, 1935).

  A fifty-five page monograph published as the author’s “Inaugural-Dissertation.”

  32. Kellner, Menachem. “ Gersonides, Providence, and the Rabbinic Tridition,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 42 (1974): 673-85.

  An argument to the effect that Gersonides’ views on providence are inconsistent with mainstream rabbinic positions, despite Gersonides’ attempts to prove their congruity.

  33. Kellner, Menachem. “Gersonides and His Cultured Despisers: Arama and Abravanel,” Journal of the Medieval and Renaissance Studies 6 (1976): 269-96.

  Critical survey of theological responses to Gersonides and an argument to the effect that his naturalistic account of miracles fails to satisfy the theological demands he makes upon it.

  34. Kellner, Menachem. “Maimonides and Gersonides on Mosaic Prophecy,” Speculum 52 (1977): 62-79.

   Gersonides’ philosophic account of revelation is shown to be inconsistent with his claim that the Torah is immutable.

  35. Kellner, Menachem. “Gersonides on Miracles, the Messiah, and Resurrection,” Da`at 4 (1980): 5-34.

Gersonides’ traditionalist account of Messiah and resurrection cannot be supported by his philosophic account of providence and miracles.

  36. Kellner, Menachem. “Gersonides on the Problem of Volitional Creation,” HUCA 51 (1980): 111-28.

   Gersonides’ account of God’s will and miracles does not make possible immutable revelation, as he maintains.

  37. Kellner, Menachem. “Maimonides and Gersonides on Astronomy and Metaphysics,” in S. Kottek and F. Rosner (eds.), Moses Maimonides as Physician, Scientist and Philosopher (New York: Jason Aronson, in press).

   The views of Maimonides and Gersonides on the perfectibility of the sciences contrasted.

  38. Klein-Braslavy, Sara. “Gersonides on Determinism, Possibility, Choice, and Foreknowledge,” Da`at 22 (1989): 5-53 (Hebrew).

   Gersonides’ discussion of astral determinism, choice and possibility, and divine and human (especially prophetic) foreknowledge, in wars of the Lord and in his supercommentary to Averroes’ Epitome of the Parva naturalia, II. 3, showing the dependence of the epistemological level (foreknowledge) on the ontological (determinism, choice, and possibility); Gersonides’ discussion situated in its broader Jewish and Christian context.

  39. Kreisel, Haim (Howard). “Veridical Dreams and Prophecy in the Philsophy of Gersonides,” Da`at 22 (1989): 73-84 (Hebrew).

   Gersonides’ distinction of prophecy from veridical dreams examined and situated in the context of Arabic philosophy.

  40. Langermann, Tzvi Y. “Gersonides on the Magnet and the Heat of the Sun,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides--A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philsopher-Scientist (Leiden:Brill, 1992): 267-84.

  41. Lasker, Daniel L. “Gersonides on Dreams, Divination, and Astronomy,” Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division C (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1982): 47-52.

   Gersonides’ credulity towards exempla compared with R. Solomon ben Adret’s skepticism.

  42. Manekin, Charles. “Problems of ‘Plenitude’ in Maimonides and Gersonides,” Ruth Link-Salinger et al. (eds.), A Straight Path--Studies in Medieval Phlosophy and Culture: Essays in Honor of Arthur Hyman (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1988): 183-94.

  Maimonides and Gersonides both accept the principle of plenitude (“no genuine possibility can remain forever unrealized”), but they restrict its application and in two cases anticipate problems of logic raised by modern interpreters of Aristotle.

  43. Manekin, Charles. “Logic and its Applications in the Philosophy of Gersonides,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonides en son temps (Louvain: Peeters 1991): 133-49.

   Passages in Gersonides’ logical writings are used to illuminate some of his philosophical doctrines; in particular, Gersonides is shown to have adopted Averroes’ interpretation of the universal (according to which, in modern terms, the relationship of species to genus is conceived in similar ways as that of sub-class to class) and is further shown not to have denied existential import to universal affirmations.

  44. Manekin, Charles. “Gersonides: Logic, Sciences, and Philosophy,” Gad Feudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides--A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philsopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 285-303.

  45. Möbuss, Susanne. Die Intellektlehre des Levi ben Gerson in ihrer Beziehung zur christlichen Scholastik (Frankfurt/M., Bern, New York, Paris: Peter Lang, 1991).

   This book argues that Gersonides’ theory of the intellect reveals Ockhamist influences, which contrast with its overall Averroist thrust.

  46. Nehorai, Michael. “Crescas’ Polemics with Gersononides,” M. Hallamish (ed.), Bar Ilan: Annual of Bar Ilan University 22-23 (1987): 239-59 [= Moshe Schwarcz Memorial Volume] (Hebrew).

   It is claimed that Crescas’ critiques of Gersonides are often based on positions that Gersonides did not actually hold.

  47. Nehorai, Michael. “Maimonides and Gersonides: Two Approaches to the Nature of Providence,” Da`at 20 (1988): 51-64 (Hebrew).

  The author claims that Gersonides’ theory of providence, unlike that of Maimonides, is fully consistent in form and content with accepted Biblical/Rabbinic views.

   48. Pines, Shlomo. “Scholasticism after Thomas Aquinas and the Teachings of Hasdai Crescas and His Predecessors,” Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 1, no. 10 (1966): 1-101. Hebrew translation in Pines, Studies in the History of Jewish Philosophy:The Transmission of Texts and Ideas ( = Bein Mahshevet Yisrael le-Mahshevet he-Amim) (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1977): 178-262.

   The influence of Latin scholastic philosophy on Gersonides, Bedersi, and Crescas and of Gersonides on Crescas. Specific discussions of Gersonides on determinism, God’s knowledge of future contingents, and the ‘now’. Conclusion: Gersonides’ awareness of Latin scholastic thought was significant, “but it is not a decisive factor in the formation of his philosophic system; for he was too immersed in the Arabic-Jewish Aristotelian tradition.” In this Gersonides is opposed to Crescas, for whom Latin scholasticism is shown to have had a decisive influence.

  49. Pines, Shlomo. “Saint Thomas et la pensée juive médiévale: quelques notations,” in G. Verbeke and D. Verhelst (eds.) Aquinas and Problems of his Time (Louven: University Press and The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976): 118-29.

  Pp. 126-8 on the influence of Thomistic conceptions on Gersonides.

   50. Pines, Shlomo. “Appendix: Problems in the Teachings of Gersonides,” appended to “On Certain Subjects Included in the Book Ezer ha-Dat by Isaac Polkar and Parallels to them in Spinoza,” inMehqarim be-Qabbalah, be-Philosophiah Yehudit, u-ve-Safrut ha-Mussar ve-he-Hagut, Mugashim li-Ydshaiyah Tishbi (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986): 447-57 (Hebrew).

  An argument to the effect that Latin scholasticism formed an integral part of “the natural historic context” of Gersonides’ thought and a criticism of opposing views.

  51. Pines, Shlomo. “Note sur la métaphysique et sur la physique de Gersonide,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 179-83.

  52. Rudavsky, Tamar. “Individuals and the Doctrine of Indiciduation in Gersonides,” The New Scholasticism 56 (1982): 30-50.

  An argument to the effect that Gersonides’ theory of individuals may have been influenced by Scotist doctrines and that at the very least his argument shows that he was aware of scholastic discussions relating to the doctrine of individuals.

   53. Rudavsky, Tamar. “Divine Omniscience and Future Contingents in Gersonides,” Journal of  the History of Philosophy 21 (1983): 513-36.

  This paper concludes “that without a coherent theory of conditionals, Gersonides’ theory of prophecy is seriously jeapordized, and without an account of prophetic statements, God’s inability to know future contingent events does appear to be a severe limitation upon his omniscience.” 

   54. Rudavsky, Tamar. “Divine Omniscience, Contigency and Prophecy in Gersonides,” in Tamar Rudavsky (ed.), Divine Omniscience and Omnipotence in Medieval Philosophy (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1985): 161-81.

  A discussion of the “implications of Gersonides’ theory of divine omniscience,” with particular reference “ to the difficulties Gersonides has in reconciling a theory of prophecy with an indeterminist scheme according to which God has no foreknowledge of future contigents.”

   55. Rudavsky, Tamar. “Creation, Time and Infinity in Gersonides,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (1988): 25-44.

  An examination of Gersonides’ theory of time and the infinite as developed against his views on creation, concluding that “Gersonides’ dicussion of time and the continuum is both a sophisticated and noteworthy attempt to resolve problems which to this day plague philosophers.”

   56. Rudavsky, Tamar. “ Creation and Time in Maimonides and  Gersonides,” in David B. Burrell and Bernard McGuin (eds.), God and Creation: An Ecumenical Symposium (Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 1990): 122-46.

   Gersonides is portrayed as subscribing to the Aritotelian conception of time as the number or measure of motion in a moving body, with the qualification that as a manifestation of quantity, which is invariably finite, time cannot be infinite. It must have been generated instantaneously at some point not preceded by past time, although not necessarily ex nihilio. From here it is concluded that Gersonides adopts a compromise position, a version of the theory of eternal creation: Gersonides’ version is that the world had a temporal beginning out of a preexistent matter. This article was followed by a “Response” by Barry Kogan (pp. 147-53), from which the above description is derived; Kogan’s response deals almost exclusively with Maimonides.

  57. Rudavsky, Tamar. “Individuals and Individuation in the Thought of Gersonides,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 185-97.

  58. Samuelson, Norbert. “On Knowing God: Maimonides, Gersonides, and the Philosophy of Religion,” Judaism 18 (1969): 64-77.

   Explication of Gersonides’ rejection of Maimonides’ claim that knowledge of God is impossible through an analysis of passages from Wars of the Lord III.2 and 3.

   59. Samuelson, Norbert. “Philosophic and Religious Authority in the Thought of Maimonides and Gersonides,” CCAR Journal (October, 1969): 31-43.

  Contra Husik, who claimed that Maimonides had a “truer theological sense” than did Gersonides, it is argued here that both thinkers were committed to the same methodology for settling disputes between philosophy and religion; Gersonides was simply the more consistent of the two.

   60. Samuelson, Norbert. “The Problem of Free-Will in Maimonides, Gersonides, and Aquinas,” CCAR Journal (January, 1970): 2-20.

  Gersonides’ views compared with those of Maimonides and Aquinas; passages from Wars of the Lord II.2 and IV.5 explicated.

   61. Samuelson, Norbert. “Gersonides’ Account of God’s Knowledge of Particulars,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 10 (1972): 399-416.

  Gersonides is forced to adopt the prima facie untenble claim that what we ordinarily call knowledge of individuals is not really knowledge.

   62. Samuelson, Norbert. “The Problem of Future Contingents in Medieval Jewish Philosophy,” Studies in Medieval Culture 6/7 (1976): 71-82.

  Analysis of Gersonides’ discussion of future contingents in Wars of the Lord III.2.

   63. Samuelson, Norbert. “Gersonides’ place in the History of Philosophy,” Byron L. Sherwin and Michael Carasik (eds.), The Solomon Goldman Lectures 5 (Chicago: Spertus College of Judaica Press, 1990): 105-18.

  An assessment of Gersonides’ importance in the history of Western philosophy, both in terms of his influence (through Crescas and Spinoza on Kant and Hegel) and the importance of his discussion of divine attributes for contemporary “ God talk.”

  64. Samuelson, Norbert. “The Role of Elements and Matter in Gersonides’ Cosmogony,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 199-233.

  65. Silverman, David. “Dreams, Divination, and Prophecy: Gersonides on the Problem of Precognition,” The Samuel Friedland Lectures: 1967-1974 (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1974): 99-120.

  Summery of Wars of the Lord,Treatise II.

   66. Silverman, David. “Some Remarks of Gersonides Concerning Prophecy,” Arthur A. Chiel (ed.), Perspectives on Jews and Judaism: Essays in honor of Wolfe Kelman (New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 1978): 395-408.

  Gersonides’ account of prophecy illuminated by reference to his supercommentary to Averroes’ Epitome of the Parva naturalia; the relationship of miracles to prophecy.

   67. Sirat, Colette. Les théories de vision surnaturelle dans la pensée juive du moyen-âge (Leiden: Brill, 1969): 166-74.

  Outline of Gersonides’ views on prophecy.

   68. Staub, Jacob. The Creation of the World According to Gersonides (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982) (Brown Judaic Studies no. 24).

  Detailed study of Gersonides’ account of creation, based on Treatises I and VI of the Wars and on Gersonides’ commentary on Genesis.

   69. Staub, Jacob. “Maimonides and Gersonides on the Purpose of the Supralunar World,” Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division C (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1982): 245-59.

  Explanation of Gersonides’ disagreement with Maimonides over whether the heavenly bodies can act for the sake of human beings.

   70. Staub, Jacob. “Gersonides and Contemporary Theories on the Beginning of the Universe,” David Novak and Norbert Samuelson (eds.), Creation and the End of Days: Judaism and Scientific Cosmology (Lanham, MD.: University Press of America, 1986): 245-59.

  Similarities between Gersonides’ cosmology and that of contemporary physics.

  71. Teicher, Jacob. “ Studi preliminari sulla dottrina della conoscenza di Gersonide,” Rendiconte della Reale Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Classe di Scienzi Morale, Storiche e Filologiche), 6th series (1932): 500-10.

  72. Touati, Charles. La pensée philosophique et théologique de Gersonide (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1973).

  Comprehensive account of Gersonides’ life, writings, thought, and influence. The overwhelming bulk of the book (pp. 98-537) deals with Gersonides’ philosophy.

   73. Touati, Charles. “Theoria et praxis dans l’éthique de Gersonide,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain, Peeters, 1991): 151-8.

  74. Ventura, Moise. “Belief in Providence According to Gersonides,” Minhah le-Avraham [Abraham Elmaleh Festschrift] (Jerusalem, 1959): 12-21 (Hebrew).

  A summery of the Wars.

  76. Wolfson, Harry A. “Maimonides and Gersonides on Divine Attributes as Ambiguous Terms,” Mordecai M. Kaplan Jubilee Volume (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1945): 515-30. Reprinted in Wolfson, Studies in the History of Philosophy and Religion, Vol. Two, edited by Isadore Twersky and George H. Williams (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977): 231-46.

   “In this paper, confining ourselves to the problem of whether divine attributes are to be taken as equivocal or ambiguous terms, we have tried to show that Maimonides’ interpretation of divine attributes as equivocal terms is unique in the history of philosophy, that Moslem philosophers take them to be ambiguous terms, and that Gersonides has adopted this view of the Moslem philosophers in opposition to that of Maimonides.”

VII. Science

A.       Astronomy and Astrology

NOTE: Wars of the Lord, TreatiseV, part I constitutes Gersonides’  Astronomy and is sometimes referred to as such in the literature on Gersonides.

1. Barker, Peter and Bernard R. Goldstein, “The Role of Comets in the Copernican Revolution,” Studies in the History an Philosophy of Science 19 (1988): 299-319.

Gersonides’ cometary theory and observations are put in the context of other such medieval reports.

2.    Beaujouan, Guy. “Les orientations de la science latine au début du XIVe siècle,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides—A Fourteenth-Century Jewish philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 71-80.

3. Curtze, Maximilian. “Die Abhandlung des Levi ben Gerson ueber Trigonometrie und den Jacobstab,” Bibliotheca Mathematica (n.s.) 12 (1898): 97-112.

Contains a German translation (from the Latin) of portions of Gersonides’ De sinibus, chordis, et arcubus, one of the first European writings on trigonometry (this text is part of Wars of the Lord V. I) and material on Gersonides’ Jacob staff.

4. Duhem, Pierre. Le système du monde (Paris: Hermann, 1954), Vol. 4, pp. 38-41 and Vol. 5, pp. 201-29.

A brief account of Gersonides’ astonomy, astrology, and philosophy.

5.    Freudenthal, Gad. “Levi ben Gershom as a Scientist: Physics, Astrology, and Eschatology,” Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division C, Vol. 1: Jewish Thought and Literature (Jerusalem: World Congress of Jewish Studies, 1990): 65-72.

Shows that Gersonides’ astrology “was founded on the best contemporary science;” Gersonides’ “vision of mankind as influenced by the his eschatological views.”

6.    Goldstein, Bernard R. “Preliminary Remarks on Levi ben Gersoni’s Contributions to Astronomy,” Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 3 (1969): 239-54. Also published in Hebrew: “Al Terumato shel R. Levi ben Gershom le-Astronomiyah,” Divrei ha-Aqademiyah Ha-Le‘umit ha-Yisraelit le-Mada‘im 4 (1970): 174-85.

A brief account of Gersonides’ astonomy, emphasizing his discussions of astronomical instruments and theories.

7. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Some Medieval Reports of Venus and Mercury Transits,” Centaurus 14 (1969): 49-59. Reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

P. 54: a translation of a passage from Wars V.i, chapt. 133, discussing a Venus transit reported by Averroes.

8. Goldstein, Bernard R. Al-Bitruji: On the Principles of Astronomy, Vol. 1 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971).

Pp. 40-43 contain a discussion of criticisms of al-Bitruji’s astronomical models which appear in Wars  V.i, chapts. 40-41.

9. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Theory and observation in Medieval Astronomy,” Isis 63 (1972): 39-47. Reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

Goldstein presents Gersonides’ unusual view (by medieval standards) that astronomical theories should be tested by observation and that where agreement between observation and theory is poor, the theory should be discarded.

10. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson’s Preliminary Lunar Model,” Centaurus 18 (1974): 275-88. Reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

An account of Gersonides’ preliminary lunar model, which he later replaced.  

11. Goldstein, Bernard R. The Astronomical Tables of Levi ben Gerson (= Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 45) (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1974).

An edition, with commentary, of all trigonometrical and astronomical tables, in Wars V.i, published for the first time.

12. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson’s Analysis of Precession,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 6 (1975): 31-41. Reprinted in Goldstein,  Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Philsophy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

Translation, with commentary, of Wars V. i, chapt. 61, concerning Gersonides’ derivation of precession by comparing his own observations with those in Ptolemy’s Almagest.

13. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Astronomical and Astrological Themes in  the Philosophical Works of Levi ben Gerson,”  Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences  26 (1976):221-24. Reprinted in Goldstein,  Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Vasriorum Reprints, 1985).

A brief account of Gersonides’ views on astronomy, astrology, and miracles in the Bible.

14. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson: On Instrumental Errors and the Transversal Scale,”  Journal for the History of Astronomy 8 (1977): 102-112.

An account of  Wars V. i,  chapt. 12 in which Gersonides applies the transversal scale to the astrolabe, and discusses the errors in taking stellar altitudes with this instrument.

15. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Medieval Observations of Solar and Lunar Eclipses,”  Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences  29 (1979): 101-56. Reprinted in Goldstein,  Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy  (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985).

A translation, with commentary, of  Wars V.1, chapts. 80 and 100, in which are described Gersonides’ observations and analyses of four solar and six lunar eclipses.

16. Goldstein,  Bernard R. “The Status of Models in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy,”  Centaurus  24 (1980):132-47.

Gersonides’ attitude towards astronomical models is placed in the context of the views expressed by ancient and medieval astronomers.

17. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Star Lists in Hebrew,”  Centaurus  28 (1985): 185-208.

The relationship of Gersonides’ short list of stars to other such lists in Hebrew and Arabic.

18. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson’s Theory of Planetary Distances,”  Centaurus 29 (1986): 272-313.

Translation, with commentary, of  Wars V.i, chapts. 130 and 131, concerning a new theory of planetary distances. The notion of a “fluid” layer between the planetary spherical shells allows for much greater distances than those in Ptolemy’s  Planetary Hypotheses.

19. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Preliminary Remarks on Levi ben Gerson’t Cosmology,” David Novak and Norbert Samuelson (eds.), Creation and the End of Days: Judaism and Scientific Cosmology (Lanham, MD.: University Press of America, 1986): 261-76.

A translation, with commentary, of  Wars  V.i, chapt. 29, concerning the order of the planetary spheres.

20. Goldstein, Bernard R. “A New Set of Fourteenth-Century Planetary Observations,” Proceedings of the American Philsophical Society  132 (1988): 371-99.

A translation, with commentary, of Wars V.i, chapts. 46, 109, 113, 117, and 122, which texts include forty five planetary observations, a very extensive list by medieval standards.

21. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Galileo’s Account of Astonomical Miracles in the Bible: A Confusion of Sources,”  Nuncius  5 (1990): 3-16.

An account of Gersonides’ discussion of astronomical miracles in the Bible in the context of other ancient and medieval discussions of them.

22. Godstein, Bernard R. and David Pingree,  Levi ben Gerson’s Prognostication for the Conjunction of 1345 in Translations of the American philosophical Society Vol. 80, part 6 (1990). 60 pp.

Editions of the Hebrew and Latin versions, with translations, of Gersonides’ only known astrological treatise. A commentary includes discussions of the astronomical computations in this text, and of its relationship to astrological history, particularly the  theory reported by Abraham ibn Ezra. It is also argued that Iohannes de Muris (fl. Ca. 1320-1350) alluded to this treatise in his own discussion of the astrological meaning of this planetary conjucntion. The date of Gersonides’ death (April 20, 1344) is reported in the colophon to the Latin version of this text (and nowhere else).

23. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson: On Astronomy and Physical Experiments,” in S. Unguru (ed.),  Cosmology and Astronomy,  1300-1700:  Tension and Accomodation (= Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science,  vol. 126) (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991): 75-82.

Consideration of Gersonides’ experiment for locating the center of vision in the eye and his experiment for explaining the size and shape of the image seen with the camera obscura’ similarities to Kepler’s discussion of the same topics are noted.

24. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson’s Astrology in Historical Perspective,” G Dahan (ed.),

Gersonide en son temps (Louvain:Peeters, 1991): 287-300.

25. Goldstein, Bernard R. “Levi ben Gerson’s Contributions to Astronomy,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides—A Fourteenth –Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 3-19.

26. Guenther, Siegmund. “Die erste Anwendung des Jakobsstabes zur geographischen Ortsbestimmung,” Bibliotheca Mathematica (n.s.) 4 (1890): 73-80.

27. Hugonnard-Roche, Henri. “Problèmes  méthodologiques dans l’astrpmp,oe ai début du XIVe siècle,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.),  Studies on Gersonides—A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 55-70.

28. Langermann, Y. Tzvi. “An Unknown Astronomical Treatise by Levi ben Gershom,” Kiryat Sefer 59 (1984), p. 636 (Hebrew).

This treatise, Hug ha-Shamayim, describes an astronomical instrument, the armillary sphere, distinct from the Jacob Staff’ also includes a short star list for  1325 (on which see Bernard R. Goldstein, “Star Lists in Hebrew,”  Centaurus 28 (1095): 185-208, pp. 199-202).

29. Mancha, José Luis. “Egidius of Baisiu’s Theory of  Pinhole Images,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 40 (2989): 1-36.

On pp. 29-31 Mancha compares Gersonides’ study of pinhole images in Wars V.i with that of his contemporary Egidius in a text published here for the first time. Mancha also notes that the two latin versions of Wars V.i differ only slightly and were composed by the same translator, Pertrus of Alexandria, and not by two independent translators as has sometimes been supposed.

30. Mancha, José Luis. “The Latin Translation of Levi ben Gerson’s Astronomy,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.),  Studies on Gersonids: A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 21-46.

31. Marx, Alexander. “The Scientific Work of Some Outstading Medieval Jewish Scholars,” Israel Davidson (ed.),  Essays and Studies in Memory of Linda R. Miller  (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1938): 117-170.

Overview of Gersonides’ mathematics and astronomy on pp. 153-60.

32. Poulle, Emmanuel. “L’astronomie latine au XIVe siècle,” G. Dahan (ed.),  Gersonide en son temps  (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 253-64.

33. Roche, J.J. “The Radius Astronomicus in England,”  Annals of Science 38 (1981): 1-32.

Pp. 3-9 on Gersonides’ astronomical invention, the Jacob Staff.

34. Romano, David. “L’apport arabe dans l’oeuvre scientifique de Gersonide,” G. Dahan (ed.),  Gersonideen son temps (Louvain:Peeters, 1991): 265-85.

35. Sarton, George.  Introduction to the History of Science,  Vol. III, pt. 1 (Washington: Carnegie Institute, 1947).

Pp. 594-607, give an overview, now largely outdated, of Gersonides’ scientific work.

36. Sezgin, Fuat.  Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums,  Band 6:  Astronomie (Leiden: Brill, 1978).

Sezgin, pp. 53ff., places Gersonides among medieval critics of  Ptolemy, and relates his work to treatises written in Arabic.

37. Steinschneider, Moritz. “Levi ben Gerson und der Baculus Jacobi,” Bibliotheca Mathematica 4 (1890), p, 107. Reprinted in Steinschneider’s  Gesammelte Schriften,  Vol. I (Berlin, 1925), p. 270.

38. Thorndike, Lynn.  A History of Magic and Experimental Science, Vol. III (New York: Columbia University Press, 1934).

A discussion, on pp. 303-11, of  Gersonides’ astrological treatise based on the Latin manuscripts.

B. Mathematics

1. Carlebach, Joseph.  Lewi ben Gerson als Mathematiker  (Berlin: J. Lamm, 1910). Reprint: Miriam Gillis Carlebach (ed.),  Joseph  Carlebach: Ausgewaehlte Schriften,  Vol. Two (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1982): 713-952.

Contains: biographical study of Gersonides, the Latin (and only surviving)text of Gersonides’  De numeris harmonicis,  and German translation of selections from Gersonides’  Ma‘aseh Hoshev.

2. Chemla, Karine and Serge Pahaut, “Remarques sur les ouvrages mathématiques de Gersonide,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.),  Studies on Gersonides—A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist  (Leiden: Brill, 1922): 149-191.

3. Curtze, Maximilian. “Die Abhandlung des Levi ben Gerson ueber Trigonometrie und den Jacobstab,” Bibliotheca Mathematica (n.s.) 12 (1898): 97-112.

Contains a German translation (from the Latin) of Gersonides’  De sinibus, chordis, et arcubus, one of the first European writings on trigonometry. This text is part of  Wars of the Lord V.i.

4. Curtze, Maximilian. “Urkunden zur Geschichte der Trigonometrie im christlichen Mittelalter,”  Bibiliotheca Mathematica  (3rd series) 1 (1900): 321-416.

Further portions of De sinibus…translated into German.

5. Curtze, Maximilien. “Die Dunkelkammer,” Himmel und Erde 13 (1901): 225-36.

Contains a German translation of portions of  De sinibus…

6. Espenshade, Pamela. “A Text on Trigonometry by Levi ben Gerson,”  The Mathematics Teacher 60 (1967): 628-37.

Portions of  De sinibus… translated into English.

7. Lange, Gerson.  Sefer Maassei Chosceb. Die Praxis des Rechners. Ein hebraeisch-arithmetisches Werk des Levi ben Gerschom aus dem Jahre 1321 (Frankfurt am Main: Louis Golde, 1909).

Edition of  Ma‘aseh Hoshev with German traslation, preceded by a 14 page introduction.

8.Lévy, Tony. “Gersonide, commentateur d’Euclide: Traduction annotée de ses gloses sur les Eléments,”  Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides—A  Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 83-147.

9. Lindberg, David C. “The Theory of  Pinhole Images in the Fourteenth Century,”  Archive for History of  the Exact Sciences 6 (1970): 299-328.

10. Mancha, José Luis. “Egidius of Baisiu’s Theory of Pinhole Images,” Archive for History of the Exact Sciences 40 (1989): 1-36.

Gersonides’ contributions to optical theory are compared with other medieval writings on the subject, pp. 29-31.

11. Marx, Alexander. “The Scientific Work of  Some Outstanding Medieval Jewish Scholars,” Israel Davidson (ed.),  Essays and Studies in Memory of Linda R. Miller (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1938): 117-170.

Overview of Gersonides’ mathematics and astronomy on pp. 153-60.

12. Polski, Joseph. “Fragment of the Commentaries [in Hebrew] on Euclid Concerning Parallel Lines,”  Istoriko-matematitcheskie Issledovaniya [= Historico-Mathematical Researches] 11 (1958): 763-82 (Russian).

Russian translation of Gersonides on Euclid’s fifth (parallel) postulate’ cf. Rosenfeld, 1958 and 1976 and Pont, 1986 (all in this section).

Pont, Jean-Claude.  L’Aventure des parallèles. Histoire de la géométrie non euclidienne: Précurseurs et  attardés (Bern/Frankfurt/New York: Peter Lang, 1986).

Pp. 188-91 give a brief account of Gersonides’ attempts to prove Euclid’s fifth (parallel) postulate, following Rosenfeld, 1958. Cf. also Rosenfeld, 1976.

14. Rabinovitch, Nachum L. “Rabbi Levi ben Gershon and the Origins of  Mathematical Induction,”  Archive for History of Exact Sciences 6 (1970): 237-48.

Survey of Gersonides’ contributions to mathematics and argument that Gersonides is the earliest known mathematician to have used the technique of mathematical induction in a systematic and self-conscious fashion.

15. Rabinovitch, Nachum L.  Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature (Toronto: University of  Toronto Press, 1973): index, s.v., “Levi ben Gershon.”

16. Rabinovitch, Nachum L. “Early Antecedents of Error Theory,”  Archive for History of Exact Sciences 13 (1974): 348-58.

Gersonides’ anticipation of Galileo’s error theory; contains discussions of Gersonides’ commentaries to Proverbs 19:28, 16:13-14, and 27:23.

17. Rosenfeld, B.A. “The Proofs of Euclid’s Fifth Postulate by the Mathematicians Ibn al-Haitham and Gersonides,”  Istorikomatematitcheskie Issledovaniya  [= Historico-Mathematical Researches] 11 (1958: 733-90 (Russian).

18. Rosenfeld, B.A. Istoria Neevklidovoi Geometrii (Moscow:Nauka, 1976) (Publication of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for the History of Nature and Technology) (Russian). English translation:  A History of Non-Eculidean Geometry. Evoloution of the Concept of a Geometric Space,   translated by A. Shenitzer, with the assistance of A. Grant (New York: Springer Verlag, 1988).

Pp. 86-91 of the Russian and pp. 109-12 of the English present a brief account of Gersonides’ attempt to prove Euclid’s fifth (parallel) postulate, noting similarities to analogous attempts by Arab mathematicians.

19. Sarfatti, Gad B.  Mathematical Terminology in Hebrew Scientific Literature in the Middle Ages (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1968) (Hebrew).

Pp. 220-30 on Gersonides’ mathematical usages; includes a detailed decription of Ma‘aseh Hoshev. Gersonides’ mathematical terminology is shown not to be original, testifying to the existence of a received terminology; this received terminology is shown to be permeated with Arabisms.

20. Sarton, George.  Introduction to the History of Science,  Vol. III, pt. 1 (Washington: Carnegie Institute, 1947).

Pp. 594-607, give an overview, now largely outdated, of Gersonides’ scientific work.

21. Sezgin, Fuat.  Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums,  Band 5:  Mathematik (Leiden: Brill, 1974).

On pp. 56-60  Gersonides’ contributions to trigonometry and to the study of Euclid’s parallel postulate are noted.

22. Steinschneider, Moritz.  Mathematik bei den Juden, (Berlin/Leipzig,  1893-99; Frankfurt, 1901; Hildesheim: George Olms, 1964).

Pp. 129-33 on Gersonides’ mathematical works.

23. Werner, Eric and Isaiah Sonne. “The Philosophy and Theory of Music in Judeo-Arabic Literature” (Second Installment), Appendix II:” Concerning the Treatise  De numeris harmonicis by Gersonides,”  HUCA 17 (1942-43): 564-72.

A study of De numeris harmonicis in the context of musical theory.

24. Werner, Eric. “The Mathematical Foundation of Philippe de Vitri’s  Ars nova,” Journal of the American Musicological Society 9 (1956): 128-32.

The importance of Gerosnides’  De numeris harmonicis  for the history of music theory.

C. Logic

1.    Bertola, Ermenegildo. “Levi ben Gerson e la logica Arabo-Giudaica,”  Pier Lombardo 5 (1961): 55-68. Reprinted in Bertola,  Il Pensiero Ebraico: Studi e Ricerche (Padova: Cedam, 1972).

Pp. 337-59 on Gersonides.

2.    Manekin, Charles. “Preliminary Observations on Gersonides’ Logical Writings,”  PAAJR 52 (1985): 85-113.

Comprehensive description of Gersonides’ logical writings.

3.    Manekin, Bezalel (Charles). “The Book Sha‘arei Zedeq and its Attribution to Gersonides,”  Alei Sefer 14  (1987): 55-58 (Hebrew).

The Author demonstrates that it is very unlikely that Gersonides is the author of  Sha‘arei Zedeq, a commentary on the thirteen hermeneutical principles of halakhic exegesis.

4.    Manekin, Charles. “Problems of ‘Plenitude’ in Maimonides and Gersonides,” Ruth Link-Salinger et al. (eds.),  A Straight Path—Studies in Medieval Philosophy and Culture: Essays in Honor of Arthur Hyman (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1988): 183-94.

Maimonides and Gersonides both accept the principle of plenitude (“no genuine possibility can remain forever unrealized”), but they restrict its application and in two cases anticipate problems of logic raised by modern interpreters of Aristotle.

5.    Manekin, Charles. “Logic and  Science in Gersonides,” Knowledge and the Sciences in Medieval Philosophy. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Medieval Philosophy (S.I.E.P.M), Helsinki 24-29 August 1987 (Helsinki, 1990), Vol. II: 565-73.

6.    Manekin, Charles.  The Logic of Gersonides: A Translation of the Sefer ha-Heqqesh ha-Yashar (Book of  the Correct Syllogism) (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992) (New Synthese Historical Library no. 40).

7.    Rosenberg, Shalom. “Logic and Ontology in Jewish Philosophy in the Fourteenth Century,” Ph. D. Dissertation (Hebrew University, 1973) (Hebrew).

Pp. 25-28, 78-81, and 214-35 contain references to Gersonides’ contributions to logic.

8.    Sinyor, Alan David. “Gersonides on the  Categories,”  Ph.D. Diss. (Cambridge University, 1989).

A study of Gersnoides’ supercommentary on Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s  Categories.  This dissertation seeks to evaluate the supercommentary insofar as it relates to Gersnoides’ mature philosophical views as expressed in  Wars of the Lord.  For Gersonides, the  Categories is not a part of  logic,  but a pre-scientific study of the extra-mental world which is prior to logic proper; doctrines discussed include the relation of substance to accident, the locus of differentia in the categorical scheme; the definition of place and its relation to space; and the nature of number. The dissertation includes a working translation of the supercommentary.

VII. Influence

1. Berman, Lawrence. “Greek into Hebrew: Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles, Fourteenth-Century Philosopher and     Translator,” A. Altmenn (ed.), Jewish Medieval and Renaissance Studies (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1967): 289-320.

Pp. 300-01: the criticism of  Gersondies’ logic by Samuel  b. Judah and his student, Judah b. Isaac.

2. Bonfil, Reuven. “Introduction” to the facsimile edition of the  Mantua ca. 1475 edition of Judah Messer Leon,  Nofet Zufim (Jerusalam: Jewish National and University Library, 1981) (Hebrew).

Pp. 11, 16-18: sources concerning Judah Messer Leon’s opposition to Gersonides’ Commentary on the Bible.

3. Chabás, José. “L’influence de l’astronomie de Levi ben Gershom sur Jacob ben David Bonjorn,” Gad Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides—A fourteenth-Century Jewish Philsopher-Scientist (Leiden: Brill, 1992): 47-54.

4. Dahan, Gilbert. “Les traductions latines médiévales des oeuvres de Gersonide,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, 1991): 329-68.

5. Feldman, Leon (ed.). “Introduction” to Perush ha-Ran al ha-Torah (Jerusalem: Shalem, 1968).

Pp. 84-87 on Gersonides’ influence on the Bible commentaries of Rabbenu Nissim ben Reuven Gerondi.

6. Harvey, Warren Zev. “R. Hasdai Crescas and His Critique of Philosophic Happiness,”  Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress of Jewish Studies  (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1977), III: 143-49 (Hewbrew).

Gersonides’ doctrine on the type of knowledge which confers immortality briefly compared with that of Maimonides; Crescas’ use of Gersonides’ writings on this subject and his critique of them considered.

7. Husik, Isaac.  Judah Messer Leon’s Commentary on the “Vetus Logica”  (Brill: Leiden, 1906).

Pp. 93-108 on Judah Messer Leon’s critique of Gersonides as “the wise in his own eyes.” Husik proves that it was Gersonides whom Messer Leon had in mind when he used the expression.

9. Kellner, Menachem. “Gersonides and His Cultured Dewpisers: Arama and Abravanel,” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 6 (1976): 269-96.

Gersonides’ reputation and influence after his death described (pp. 269-73); critiques of Issac Arama and Isaac Abravanel on Gersonides’ account of the miracle in Joshua 10.

10. Parry, W. “Quantification of the Predicate and Many-Sorted Logic,” Philosophiy and Phenomenological Research 26 (1966): 342-59.

   Discusses (p. 358) Gersonides’ doctrine of the quantification of the predicate (“every man is every rational”) and cites the interpretation of Sir William Hamilton thereon. Hamilton’s citation of Gersonides is also discussed by John Stuart Mill in An Exmination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philsophy in Collected Works of John Stuart Mill Vol. 9 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979), p.400.

11. Rabinowitz, Isaac.  The Book of the Honeycomb’s Flow by Judah Messer Leon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983).

Pp. xxi and xlix: sources and studies concerning Judah Messer Leon’s opposition to Gersonides.

12.  Steinschneider, Moritz. “ Zu Levi ben Gerson,”  Magazin Fuer die Wissenschaft des Judenthums  16 (1889): 139-55.

Pp. 146-55 on references to Gersonides in later Jewish literature.

13.  Tirosh-Rothschild, Hava. Between Worlds: The Life and Thought of Rabbi David ben Judah Messer Leon  (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991).

Discussions of Judah Messer Leon’s ban on the study of Gersonides commentary on the Torah (pp. 26, 221, and 249) and of David ben Judah Messer Leon’s critique of Gersonides’ view of miracles (p. 179).

14.  Touati, Charles.  La pensée philosophique et théologique de Gersonide (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit, 1973).

Pp. 541-59 on Gersonides’ influence.

15.   Wirszubski, Chaim. “Giovanni Pico’s Book of Job,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 32 (1969): 171-99.

Pico’s extensive use of the (unpublished) Latin translation of Gersonides’ commentary on Job. See also Wirszubski’s  Pico Della Mirandola and His Encounter with Jewish Mysticism  (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989): 157-58.

16.  Wirszubski, Chaim. Three Chapters in the History of Christian Kabbalah [Sheloshah Peraqim be-Toldot ha-Qabbalah ha-Nozerit] (Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1975): 11-27, 57-58 (Hebrew).

Influence of Gersonides’ allegorical interpretation of Song of Songs on Pico.

IX. Varia

1.    Provençal, Moses ben Abraham (1503-1575), Responsa [She’elot u-Teshuvot Rabbenu Moshe Provenzalo]  (Jerusalem: Makhon Or ha-Mizrah/Makhon Jerusalem, 1989), edited by Abraham Joseph Yani.

Responsum number 1 (pp. 1-2) deals with a question concerning Gersonides’ “body which does not retain its shape.”

2.    Sirat, Colette. “La tradition manuscrite des  Guerres du Seigneur,” G. Dahan (ed.), Gersonide en son temps (Louvain: Peeters, a1991): 301-28.

3.    Yoel, Yonatan. “The Syntax of R. Levi ben Gershom’s  Wars of the Lord” [Tahbir Sefer Milhamot ha-Shem le-R. Levi ben Gershom]. Ph.D Dissertation (Hebrew University, 1971) (Hebrew).

A study of the peculiarities of Gersonides’ Hebrew.

Index of Modern Editors of Gersonides in Section I

Altmann, Alexander: B.6

Carlebach, Joseph: C.3-4; D.4

Freyman, Eli: A.iv.1

Goldstein, Bernard R.: C.1; C.5; D.4

Kellner, Menachem: A.iii.5

Lange, Gerson: C.6

Manekin, Charles: C.2

Mashbaum, Jesse Stephen: B.5

Pingree, David: C.5

Rosenberg, Shalom: B.4

Samuelson, Norbert: B.3

Touati, Charles: D.3

Index of Modern Translators of Gersonides in Section II

Bleich, J. David: B.ii.a.4

Carlebach, Joseph: B.iv.6

Curtze, Maximilian: A.4; B.ii.b.2

Espenshade, Pamela: B.ii.a.5

Feldman, Seymour: B.ii.a.1

Goldstein, Bernard R.: B.ii.a.6-13

Kellner, Menachem: B.1.3

Lange, Gerson: B.i.1

Lévy, Tony: B.iv.5

Manekin, Charles: B.iv.2

Mashbaum, Jesse Stephen: B.iii.1

Polski, Joseph: B.iv.3

Samuelson, Norbert: B.iv.3

Silverman, David: B.ii.a.2

 Sinyor, Alan: B.iii.2

Sirat, Colette: B.ii.c.1

 Staub, Jacob: B.ii.a.14

Stitskin, Leon: B.i.2

Touati, Charles: Bii.c.2; B.iv.1

Index of Authors of Studies on Gersonides in Sections III-IX

Adlerblum, Nima H.: VI.1-2

Alègre, Léon: III.1

Barker, Peter: VIIA.1

Beaujouan, Guy: VIIA.2

Berman, Lawrence: VIII.1

Bertola, Ermenegildo: BIIC.1

Blumenkranz, Bernhard: IV.1

Bonfil, Reuven: VIII.2

Burrell, David: VI.3

Carlebach, Joseph: VIIB.1

Chabás, José: VIII.3

Chartrain, F.: IV.22

Chazelas, Geneviève: IV.2

Chemla, Karine: VIIIB.2

Curtze, Mazimilian: VIIA.3; VIIB.3-5

Dahan, Gilbert: IV.2; VIII.4

Davidson, Herbert A.: VI.4

Davidson, Israel: IV.3

Dienstag, Israel Jacob: IV.4

Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit: VI.5

Duhem, Pierre: VIIA.4

Eisen, Robert: V.1

Epstein, Isidore: VI.6

Espenshade, Pamela: VIIB.6

Feldman, Leon: VIII.5

Feldman, Seymour: V.2-5; VI.7-15

Fletcher, Harris: V.6-7

Freyman, Eli: V.8-9

Freudenthal, Gad: VI.16-20; VIIA.5

Funkenstein, Amos: V.10-11

Gasparri, Françoise: III.2

Goldstein, Bernard R.: III.3; V.12; VIIA.1; VIIA.6-25

Goldstein, Helen Tunik: VI.21 Grull, Benjamin: VI.22

Guenther, Siegmund: VIIA.26

Guttmann, Julius: VI.23

Harvey, Steven: VI.24

Harvey, Warren Zev: V.13; VI.25-26; VIII.6

Heinemann, Yizhak: V.14

Hugonnard-Roche, Henri: VIIA.27 Husik, Isaac: VI.27

Husik, Isaac: VI.27-28; VIII.7

Iancu-Agou, Danièle: III.4

Ivry, Alfred: VI.29

Joel, Manuel: IV.5; VI.30

Karo, Jakob: VI.31

Kellner, Menachem: IV.6; V.15-16; VI.32-37; VIII.8

Klein-Braslavy, Sara: VI.38

Kreisel, Haim (Howard): VI.39

Lange, Gerson: VIIB.7

Langermann, Y. Tzvi: VI.40; VIIA.28

Lasker, Daniel J.: VI.41

Leibowitz, Joshua O.: V.17

Levy, Israel: III.5

Lévy, Tony: VIIB.8

Lindberg, David C.: VIIB.9

Maimon, Yehudah L.: V.18

Mancha, José Luis: VIIA.29-30;VIIB.10

Manekin, Bezalel (Charles): IV.7; VI.42-44; VIIC.2-6

Marx, Alexander: VIIA.31; VIIB.11

Moebuss, Susanne: VI.45

Munk, Salomon: IV.8

Néher, André: VIII.9

Nehorai, Michael: VI.46-47

Neubauer, Adolphe: III.6; IV.8

Pahaut, Serge: VIIB.2

Parry, W.: VIII.10

Pines, Shlomo: VI.48-51

Polski, Joseph: VIIB.12

Pont, Jean-Claude: VIIB.13

Poulle, Emmanuel: VIIA.32

Provençal, Moses ben Abraham: IX.1

Rabinovitch, Nachum L.: V.19; VIIB. 14-16

Rabinowitz, Isaac: VIII.11

Renan, Ernest: IV.9

Roche, J. J.: VIIA.34

Romano, David: VIIA.34

Rosenberg, Shalom: VIIC.7

Rosenfeld, B. A.: VIIB.17-18

Rudavsky, Tamar: VI:58-64

Salfeld, Siegmund: V.20

Samuelson, Norbert: VI:58-64

Sarfatti, Gad B.: VIIB.19

Sarton, George: IV.10; VIIA.35; VIIB.20

Schwab, M.: IV.11

Sezgin, Fuat: VIIA.36; VIIB.21

Shatzmiller, Yosef: III.7-11; IV.22

Shmueli, Ephraim: V.21

Silverman, David: VI.65-66

Sinyor, Alan David: VIIC.8

Sirat, Colette: VI.67; IX.2

Staub, Jacob: 68-70

Steinschneider, Moritz: IV.12-19; VIIA.37; VIIB.22; VIII.12

Teicher, Jacob: VI.71

Thorndike, Lynn: VIIA.38

Tirosh-Rothschild, Hava: VIII.13

Touati, Charles: III.12; IV.19; V.22-23; VI.72-73; VIII.14

Ventura, Moïse: VI.74

Weil, Gérard: IV.21-22

Weil, Isidore: VI.75

Weil-Guény, Anne-Marie: III.13-14; IV.22

Werner, Eric: VIIB.23-24

Wickersheimer, Ernest: III.15; IV.23

Wirszubski, Chaim: VIII.15-16

Wolfson, Harry A.: VI.76

Yoel, Yonatan: IX.3